Diabetic Medicine

Wiley Online Library : Diabetic Medicine
  • Protein-altering variants of PTPN2 in childhood-onset Type 1A diabetes
    Aim To conduct PTPN2 mutation analysis in Japanese people with childhood-onset Type 1A diabetes in order to examine whether PTPN2 variants contribute to the risk of this condition. Methods PTPN2 mutation analysis was carried out for 169 unrelated Japanese people with childhood-onset Type 1A diabetes. We searched for coding variants that were absent or extremely rare in the general population and were scored as damaging by multiple in silico programs. We performed mRNA analysis and three-dimensional structural prediction of the detected variants, when possible. We also examined possible physical links between these variants and previously reported risk SNPs as well as clinical information from variant-positive children. Results One frameshift variant (p.Q286Yfs*24) and two probably damaging missense substitutions (p.C232W and p.R350Q) were identified in one child each. Of these, p.Q286Yfs*24 and p.C232W were hitherto unreported, while p.R350Q accounted for 2/121,122 alleles of the exome datasets. The p.Q286Yfs*24 variant did not encode stable mRNA, and p.C232W appeared to affect the structure of the tyrosine-protein phosphatase domain. The three variants were physically unrelated to known risk SNPs. The variant-positive children manifested Type 1A diabetes without additional clinical features and invariably carried risk human leukocyte antigen alleles. Conclusions The results provide the first indication that PTPN2 variants contribute to the risk of Type 1A diabetes, independently of known risk SNPs. PTPN2 coding variants possibly induce non-specific Type 1A diabetes phenotypes in individuals with human leukocyte antigen-mediated disease susceptibility. Our findings warrant further validation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Best friend or spy: a qualitative meta-synthesis on the impact of continuous glucose monitoring on life with Type 1 diabetes
    Aims This is a meta-synthesis of extant qualitative literature related to impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). CGM has been available for a decade for the management of Type 1 diabetes and is the lynchpin of future artificial pancreas technologies. Clinical uptake of CGM is an important area of inquiry. The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to understand the impact of CGM on individuals with Type 1 diabetes and others (parents, significant others, providers) in order to design appropriate clinical interventions for adherence. Methods Studies published in English between 2007 and 2017 were included, reflecting commercial CGM availability. PubMed, PsychINFO, CINALH, Web of Science and EMBASE databases were queried using search terms related to CGM, qualitative, experience and Type 1 diabetes. Included articles contained original qualitative or mixed-method research on CGM, sensor-augmented pump or closed-loop therapies. Articles underwent quality appraisal and thematic interpretive integration by a multidisciplinary team. Results Nine articles (343 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis. Six novel themes emerged: interacting with CGM, burden of living with CGM, feeling different from others, feeling empowered, interacting with glucose information and impact on relationships. Conclusion CGM affects physical, emotional and relational aspects of life. Clinicians can help minimize the burden of CGM with carefully delivered education and expectation-setting with individuals. Empowerment and relational partnerships in diabetes care can be explored to maximize satisfaction with CGM. Systematic interpretive synthesis of qualitative studies provides a comprehensive, contextual understanding of the impact of CGM on daily life and relationships. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Diabetes and chronic kidney disease: an increasingly common multi-morbid disease in need of a paradigm shift in care
    Diabetes is considered the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease. The increasing incidence of obesity and an ageing population, together, will lead to a greater number of people with diabetes associated with chronic kidney disease that could either be secondary to diabetic nephropathy or of different aetiology. Ageing and obesity influence approaches to the management of diabetes and accurate assessment of kidney disease. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease consume a disproportionate component of expenditure on medical care. Guidelines on managing diabetes and kidney disease do not recognize the complex multi-morbid nature of the process. In addition to managing glycaemia and monitoring renal function, the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular disease itself need to be factored into care. People with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are more vulnerable to retinopathy and foot complications requiring coordinated care. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are more prone to anaemia and metabolic bone disease than those without diabetes at similar stages of chronic kidney disease, further increasing their vulnerability to acute complications from cardiovascular disease, foot emergencies and fractures. People with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are also more prone to hospitalization with infections and acute kidney injury. Given the 30–40% prevalence of kidney disease amongst people with diabetes, potentially >2% of the adult population would fit into this category, making it vital that new surveillance models of supported care are provided for those living with diabetes and kidney disease and for primary care teams who manage the vast majority of such people. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) clinical practice recommendations for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: evaluation of their application in people with Type 2 diabetes
    Aims To evaluate the application of the recently proposed recommendations by the European Association for the Study of the Liver, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and European Association for the Study of Obesity for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 179 people with Type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Liver fat content (assessed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), fatty liver index score, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, and SteatoTest and FibroTest scores were determined. Results According to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 68.7% of participants had steatosis (liver fat content >5.5%). The application of the guidelines using several combinations (fatty liver index + non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis scores, Steatotest + FibroTest scores, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy + non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy + FibroTest) resulted in a referral to a liver clinic for 33.5–84.9% people with Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions The application of these new algorithms for the diagnosis, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease would lead to an excessive number of people with Type 2 diabetes being referred to a liver clinic. We suggest that new clinical and/or biological biomarkers of steatosis and fibrosis be specifically validated in people with Type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Psychosocial impacts of hybrid closed-loop systems in the management of diabetes: a review
    There is a pressing need for new treatment regimens that enable improved glycaemic control and reduced diabetes self-management burdens. Closed-loop, or artificial pancreas, systems represent one of the most promising avenues in this regard. Closed-loop systems connect wearable continuous glucose monitor (CGM) sensors to smartphone- or tablet-mounted algorithms that process and model CGM data to deliver precise and frequently updated doses of fast-acting insulin (and glucagon in dual-hormone systems) to users via wearable pumps. Recent studies have demonstrated that closed-loop systems offer significant benefit in terms of improved glycaemic control. However, less attention has been paid to the psychosocial impact on users of closed-loop systems. This article reviews recent research on psychosocial aspects of closed-loop usage in light of preceding research on user experience of currently available technologies such as insulin pumps and CGM sensors. The small, but growing body of research in this field reports generally positive user experience and a number of experienced benefits including: reassurance and reduced anxiety, improved sleep and confidence, and ‘time off’ from diabetes demands. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by important challenges, ranging from variable levels of trust to concerns about physical bulk, technical glitches and difficulties incorporating closed-loop systems into everyday life. Future research should explore psychosocial aspects of closed-loop usage in more diverse groups and with regard to clinicians, as well as users, to ensure that the clinical benefits of closed-loop systems are realized at scale in routine medical care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Eating disorders in people with Type 1 diabetes: experiential perspectives of both clients and healthcare professionals
    Aims To explore the experiential perspective of people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and eating disorders and that of the healthcare professionals treating them, and to understand the experience of both sides to inform future development of healthcare services. Methods Participants were recruited from Diabetics with Eating Disorders (a national UK charity), and through professional networks. Nine partially/fully recovered individuals with Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and eight healthcare professionals participated in semi-structured interviews carried out by medically trained researchers. Data were transcribed and coded using a six-stage framework of thematic analysis. Results Four superordinate themes and several subordinate themes emerged from the Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders dataset: (1) perceptions surrounding service provision; (2) reflections on the recovery process; (3) the experiential perspective of living with Type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder; and (4) support mechanisms. Healthcare professional data elicited three superordinate themes and several subordinate themes: (1) service provision; (2) personal insight and reflection of professional role; and (3) challenges of working with dual diagnoses. Conclusion People with Type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their healthcare professionals provided insight into healthcare services from the patient and care delivery perspectives. There was general agreement from both groups that a multidisciplinary, collaborative (family inclusive), clinical approach to treatment is important, as well as adequate training opportunities for service providers. These findings may help to inform development strategies for multidisciplinary care approaches to Type 1 diabetes complicated by eating disorders.
  • Testosterone therapy for sexual dysfunction in men with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of testosterone therapy on a range of sexual function domains in men with Type 2 diabetes. Method Electronic databases were searched for studies investigating the effect of testosterone therapy on sexual function in men with Type 2 diabetes. All randomized controlled trials were considered for inclusion if they compared the efficacy of testosterone therapy with that of placebo and reported sexual function outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity was expressed using the I2 statistic. Results A total of 611 articles were screened. Six randomized control trials, in a total of 587 men with Type 2 diabetes, were eligible for inclusion. The pooled data suggested that testosterone therapy improves sexual desire (random-effects pooled effect size 0.314; 95% CI 0.082–0.546) and erectile function (random-effects pooled effect size 0.203; 95% CI 0.007–0.399) when compared with control groups. Testosterone therapy had no significant effect on constitutional symptoms or other sexual domains compared with control groups. No studies have investigated the incidence of prostate cancer, fertility and cardiovascular disease after testosterone therapy in men with Type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Testosterone therapy may moderately improve sexual desire and erectile function in men with Type 2 diabetes; however, available data are limited, and the long-term risks of testosterone therapy are not known in this specific patient group. We conclude that testosterone therapy is a potential treatment for men with Type 2 diabetes non-responsive to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Testosterone therapy could be considered for men with Type 2 diabetes when potential risks and benefits of therapy are carefully considered and other therapeutic options are unsuitable.
  • Low annual frequency of HbA1c testing in people with Type 2 diabetes in primary care practices in Germany
    Aims To analyse the annual frequency of HbA1c testing, as well as the factors associated with higher or lower testing frequency, in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practices and specialist diabetes practices in Germany. Methods A total of 43 509 people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes between January 2016 and December 2016 in 557 medical practices (51% of all practices) were included in this study. The primary outcome was the annual recorded frequency of HbA1c testing in 2016. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with the odds of HbA1c concentration being tested at least twice in 2016, using predefined demographic and clinical variables. Results The mean (sd) number of reported HbA1c tests was 2.7 (1.6) in 2016. Overall, 74% of individuals had at least two annual HbA1c measurements. The likelihood of receiving ≥2 HbA1c tests was inversely associated with stroke (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.74–0.89), shorter diabetes duration (≤1 year: odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.70–0.84) and higher mean HbA1c concentration (≥8.5%: odds ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.76–0.94) and was positively associated with specialist diabetes care (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.14–1.36), hypertension (odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17), hyperlipidaemia (odds ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.55), renal complications (odds ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.50), neuropathy (odds ratio 1.27, CI 1.20 to 1.35) and retinopathy (odds ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.52). Conclusions Only three out of four individuals with Type 2 diabetes underwent at least two HbA1c tests in Germany in 2016, which means that 25% of individuals underwent fewer tests than required by German guidelines.
  • A randomized controlled pilot study of continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring in people with Type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia
    Aim Hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes is associated with mortality and morbidity, especially where awareness of hypoglycaemia is impaired. Clinical pathways for access to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring technologies are unclear. We assessed the impact of CGM and flash glucose monitoring in a high-risk group of people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods A randomized, non-masked parallel group study was undertaken. Adults with Type 1 diabetes using a multiple-dose insulin-injection regimen with a Gold score of ≥ 4 or recent severe hypoglycaemia were recruited. Following 2 weeks of blinded CGM, they were randomly assigned to CGM (Dexcom G5) or flash glucose monitoring (Abbott Freestyle Libre) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference in time spent in hypoglycaemia (below 3.3 mmol/l) from baseline to endpoint with CGM versus flash glucose monitoring. Results Some 40 participants were randomized to CGM (n = 20) or flash glucose monitoring (n = 20). The participants (24 men, 16 women) had a median (IQR) age of 49.6 (37.5–63.5) years, duration of diabetes of 30.0 (21.0–36.5) years and HbA1c of 56 (48–63) mmol/mol [7.3 (6.5–7.8)%]. The baseline median percentage time < 3.3 mmol/l was 4.5% in the CGM group and 6.7% in the flash glucose monitoring. At the end-point the percentage time < 3.3 mmol/l was 2.4%, and 6.8% respectively (median between group difference −4.3%, P = 0.006). Time spent in hypoglycaemia at all thresholds, and hypoglycaemia fear, were different between groups, favouring CGM. Conclusion CGM more effectively reduces time spent in hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia compared with flash glucose monitoring. (Clinical Trial Registry No: NCT03028220). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Utility of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose for screening of Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of full ROC curves
    Aims There is still debate on the optimal threshold for population-based screening of diabetes (diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test) using tests like HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose. Meta-analyses provide meaningful input in such situations. The aim of this article is to perform a meta-analysis that includes the complete information reported in the individual studies of two existing systematic reviews. Methods We screened the individual studies from two systematic reviews and reconstructed the full four-fold tables for every reported threshold. Using a recently proposed meta-analysis model for the comparison of two diagnostic tests, we compared HbA1c with fasting plasma glucose, and estimated meta-analytic receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both tests using the 11.1 mmol/l threshold of the 2-h post-challenge glucose level (2 h-PG) as the standard. Results We included nine studies from two existing systematic reviews in our analysis. Based on our data set, the optimal threshold lies between 42 and 44 mmol/mol (6.0–6.2%) for HbA1c, and 6.2–6.4 mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose choosing the Youden index as the technical criterion. In addition, we found that there is no relevant difference in the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose . Conclusions In our meta-analysis, we found that the optimal threshold with reference to the 2 h-PG should be chosen between 42 and 44 mmol/mol (6.0–6.2%) for HbA1c, and 6.2–6.4 mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose on the basis of maximal sensitivity and specificity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Cost-effectiveness of the psycho-educational blended (group and online) intervention HypoAware compared with usual care for people with Type 1 and insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes with problematic hypoglycaemia: analyses of a cluster-randomized controlled trial
    Aims To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HypoAware, a blended (group and online) psycho-educational intervention based on the evidence-based Blood Glucose Awareness Training, in comparison with usual care in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes with a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia. Methods We performed an economic evaluation, from a societal and healthcare perspective, that used data from a 6-month, multicentre, cluster-randomized controlled trial (n = 137). Results The proportion of people with at least one severe hypoglycaemic event per 6 months was 0.22 lower (95% CI –0.39 to –0.06) and the proportion of people with impaired hypoglycaemia awareness was 0.16 lower (95% CI –0.34 to 0.02) in the HypoAware group. There was no difference in quality-adjusted life-years (–0.0; 95% CI –0.05 to 0.05). The mean total societal costs in the HypoAware group were EUR708 higher than in the usual care group (95% CI –951 to 2298). The mean incremental cost per severe hypoglycaemic event prevented was EUR2,233. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of EUR20,000 per event prevented, the probability that HypoAware was cost-effective in comparison with usual care was 54% from a societal perspective and 55% from a healthcare perspective. For quality-adjusted life-years the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was EUR119,360/quality-adjusted life-year gained and the probability of cost-effectiveness was low at all ceiling ratios. Conclusions Based on the present study, we conclude that HypoAware is not cost-effective compared to usual care. Further research in less well-resourced settings and more severely affected patients is warranted. (Clinical Trials Registry no: Dutch Trial Register NTR4538.)
  • Person-centred, web-based support in pregnancy and early motherhood for women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial
    Aims To report results from and explore use of a multicentre, parallel-group, unblinded, randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness in terms of well-being and diabetes management of a person-centred, web-based support programme for women with Type 1 diabetes, in pregnancy and postpartum. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, 174 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes were randomly allocated (1:1) to web-based support and standard care (intervention group, n=83), or standard care (control group, n=91). The web-based support consisted of evidence-based information; a self-care diary for monitoring of daily activities; and peer support in a discussion forum. The primary outcomes (mean difference, measured at 6 months after childbirth) were well-being and diabetes management. Results No differences were found with regard to the primary outcome measure scores for general well-being [1.04 (95% CI –1.28 to 3.37); P=0.68] and self-efficacy of diabetes management [0.08 (95% CI –0.12 to 0.28); P= 0.75], after adjustment for baseline differences in the insulin administration method, nor with regard to the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions At 6 months after childbirth, the web-based support plus standard care was not superior to standard care in terms of general well-being or self-efficacy of diabetes management. This might be explained by the low number of participants who had a high activity level. Few simultaneously active participants in the web-based programme and stressors in motherhood and diabetes postpartum were the main barriers to its use. Further intervention studies that offer web-based support are needed, with lessons learned from the present study. (Clinicaltrials.gov identification number: NCT015665824)
  • Men across a range of ethnicities have a higher prevalence of diabetes: findings from a cross-sectional study of 500 000 UK Biobank participants
    Aims Studies show that white men have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus than women at a given age and BMI, but equivalent standardized data for other ethnic groups in the UK are sparse. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed UK Biobank data from 489 079 participants to compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus across four major ethnic groups including: 471 700 (96.4%) white, 7871 (1.6%) South Asian, 7974 (1.6%) black and 1534 (0.3%) Chinese participants, before and after standardizing for age, socio-economic status (SES), BMI and lifestyle factors including physical activity, TV viewing, fruit and vegetable intake, processed meat, red meat, oily fish, alcohol intake and smoking. A subgroup analysis of South Asians was also undertaken. Results Crude diabetes prevalence was higher in men across all four ethnicities. After standardizing for age, SES, BMI and lifestyle factors, a significant sex difference in diabetes prevalence persisted in white (men 6.0% vs. women 3.6%), South Asian (21.0% vs. 13.8%) and black individuals (13.3% vs. 9.7%) (P < 0.0001); there was a non-significant difference between Chinese men and women (7.1% vs. 5.5%) (P = 0.211). Sex differences persisted across South Asian subgroups. Conclusions Men across a range of major ethnic groups including white, South Asian and black, have a higher prevalence of diabetes compared with women of similar age, BMI, SES and lifestyle in the UK.
  • Better uptake of technology and improved outcomes in Type 1 diabetes
  • Mortality and acute complications in children and young adults diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire, UK: a cohort study
    Aims To examine all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of people with early and late onset of Type 1 diabetes. Methods The Yorkshire Register of Diabetes in Children and Young People includes individuals with early (0–14 years) and late (15–29 years) Type 1 diabetes onset, diagnosed between 1978 and 2013. This register was linked to death certification data from the Office for National Statistics to calculate standardized mortality ratios, cumulative mortality curves using Kaplan–Meier survival estimates, and Cox regression modelling. Ethnicity was derived using Onomap. Deprivation status was classified using the Townsend index. The underlying cause of death in each case was clinically verified. Results There were 229 deaths in 5498 individuals with 100 959 person-years of follow-up. The overall standardized mortality ratio was 4.3 (95% CI 3.8 to 4.9). There were no significant differences in standardized mortality ratios according to age of onset, sex or deprivation status. The standardized mortality ratios were significantly higher for people of white ethnic origin [8.1 (95% CI 6.9 to 9.4)] than for those of South-Asian ethnic origin [3.4 (95% CI 1.7 to 6.4)]. The mortality risk was lower in those diagnosed in later years (2002 to 2013 for the early-onset and 2006 to 2013 for the late-onset group) compared with earlier years (1991 to 1997 for the early-onset and 1991 to 1997 for the late-onset group) for both onset groups [hazard ratio 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.33) vs 0.24 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.81)]. Mortality risk improved over time for chronic complications in the early-onset group only, but there was no improvement in either onset group with regard to acute complications. Conclusions An excess of deaths in the population with Type 1 diabetes remains. Although the all-cause mortality risk has fallen over time, no improvement has been found in the mortality risk associated with acute complications.
  • Route to improving Type 1 diabetes mellitus glycaemic outcomes: real-world evidence taken from the National Diabetes Audit
    Aim To use general practice-level data for England, available through the National Diabetes Audit, and primary care prescribing data to identify prescription treatment factors associated with variations in achieved glucose control (HbA1c). Methods General practice-level National Diabetes Audit data on Type 1 diabetes, including details of population characteristics, services, proportion of people achieving target glycaemic control [HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol (7.5%)] and proportion of people at high glycaemic risk [HbA1c >86 mmol/ml (10%)], were linked to 2013–2016 primary care diabetes prescribing data on insulin types and blood glucose monitoring for all people with diabetes. Results A wide variation was found between the 10th percentile and the 90th percentile of general practices in both target glycaemic control (15.6% to 44.8%, respectively) and high glycaemic risk (4.8% to 28.6%, respectively). Our analysis suggests that, given the extrapolated total of 280 000 people with Type 1 diabetes in the UK, there may be the potential to increase the number of those within target glycaemic control from 80 000 to 101 000; 53% of this increase (11 000 people) would result from service improvements and 47% (10 000 people) from medication and technology changes. The same improvements would also provide the opportunity to reduce the number of people at high glycaemic risk from 42 000 to 26 500. A key factor associated with practice-level target HbA1c achievement would be greater use of insulin pumps for up to an additional 56 000 people. Conclusion If the HbA1c achievement rates in service provision, medication and use of technology currently seen in practices in the 90th percentile were to be matched with regard to HbA1c achievement rates in all general practices, glycaemic control might be improved for 36 500 people, with all the attendant health benefits.
  • Prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are underestimated in clinical practice: impact of a dedicated screening approach at a large university teaching hospital
    Aims To define the attitudes and current clinical practice of diabetes specialists with regard to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, based on the results, implement an evidenced-based pathway for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessment. Methods An online survey was disseminated to diabetes specialists. Based on findings from this survey, we sought a local solution by launching an awareness campaign and implementing a screening algorithm across all diabetes clinics at a secondary/tertiary referral centre. Results A total of 133 diabetes specialists responded to the survey. Fewer than 5% of responders correctly assessed the prevalence and severity of advanced fibrotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in people with diabetes as 50–75%. Whilst most clinicians performed liver function tests, only 5.7% responded stating that they would use, or had used, a non-invasive algorithm to stage the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Implementing a local non-alcoholic fatty liver disease awareness campaign and screening strategy using pre-printed blood request forms, we ensured that 100% (n=395) of all people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus attending secondary/tertiary care diabetes clinics over a 6-month period were appropriately screened for advanced fibrotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using the Fib-4 index; 17.9% required further investigation or assessment. Conclusions The prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are underestimated among diabetes specialists. The Fib-4 index can easily be incorporated into clinical practice in secondary/tertiary care to identify those individuals at risk of advanced fibrosis who require further assessment and who may benefit from a dedicated multidisciplinary approach to their management.
  • Association between diabetes mellitus and olfactory dysfunction: current perspectives and future directions
    The increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus presents a significant challenge to healthcare systems today. Although diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy are well-established complications of diabetes, there is a paucity of research examining the impact of dysglycaemia on the olfactory system. Olfaction is an important sense, playing a role in the safety, nutrition and quality of life of an individual, but its importance is often overlooked when compared with the other senses. As a result, olfactory dysfunction is often underdiagnosed. The present review article aims to present and discuss the available evidence on the relationship between diabetes and olfaction. It also explores the associations between olfactory dysfunction and diabetes complications that could explain the underlying pathogenesis. Finally, it summarizes the putative pathological mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction in diabetes that require further investigation.
  • Table of Contents 2
  • Aims and Scope
  • History of mood or anxiety disorders and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort
    Aim To examine the association between mood and anxiety disorders and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a retrospective population-based cohort study. Methods Clinical data from a provincial perinatal health registry were linked to physician claims, hospitalization records and emergency visits to identify any diagnoses of mood or anxiety disorders in the 2 years prior to pregnancy and a subsequent diagnosis of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. The study population included all singleton pregnancies in the Canadian province of Alberta from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2010. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the adjusted odds ratio of gestational diabetes, comparing women with and without a history of mood or anxiety disorders. Results Among 373 674 pregnancies from 253 911 women, 25.7% had a history of mood or anxiety disorders, and 3.8% developed gestational diabetes. The multivariate-adjusted odds of developing gestational diabetes were higher among women with a history of mood or anxiety disorders (odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14). Conclusions Women with a history of mood or anxiety disorders had a moderately increased risk of developing gestational diabetes.
  • Editorial Board
  • Reducing the burden of diabetes complications
  • Table of Contents 1
  • Family behaviours that have an impact on the self-management activities of adults living with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-synthesis
    Aims To identify family behaviours that adults with Type 2 diabetes’ perceive as having an impact on their diabetes self-management. Background Research suggests that adults with Type 2 diabetes perceive that family members have an important impact on their self-management; however, it is unclear which family behaviours are perceived to influence self-management practices. Methods This meta-synthesis identified and synthesized qualitative studies from the databases EMBASE, Medline and CINAHL published between the year 2000 and October 2016. Studies were eligible if they provided direct quotations from adults with Type 2 diabetes, describing the influence of families on their self-management. This meta-synthesis adheres to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Results Of the 2606 studies screened, 40 were included. This meta-synthesis identified that adults with Type 2 diabetes perceive family behaviours to be either: 1) facilitators of diabetes self-management; 2) barriers to diabetes self-management; or 3) equivocal behaviours with the potential to both support and/or impede diabetes self-management. Seven sub-themes were identified within these themes, including: four facilitator sub-themes (‘positive care partnerships’; ‘family watchfulness’; ‘families as extrinsic motivator’ and ‘independence from family’); two barrier sub-themes (‘obstructive behaviours’ and ‘limited capacity for family support’); and one equivocal behaviours subtheme (‘regular reminders and/or nagging’). Conclusion While most family behaviours are unambiguously perceived by adults with Type 2 diabetes to act as facilitators of or barriers to self-management, some behaviours were perceived as being neither clear facilitators nor barriers; these were termed ‘equivocal behaviours’. If the concept of ‘equivocal behaviours’ is confirmed, it may be possible to encourage the adult living with Type 2 diabetes to reframe these behaviours so that they are perceived as enabling their diabetes self-management.

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