Diabetic Medicine

Wiley Online Library : Diabetic Medicine
  • Medication errors at hospital admission and discharge in Type 1 and 2 diabetes
    Aims To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors at hospital admission and discharge in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and identify potential risk factors for these errors. Methods This prospective observational study included all people with Type 1 (n = 163) and Type 2 diabetes (n = 508) admitted to the Diabetology-Department of the University Hospital of Montpellier, France, between 2013 and 2015. Pharmacists conducted medication reconciliation within 24 h of admission and at hospital discharge. Medication history collected from different sources (patient/family interviews, prescriptions/medical records, contact with community pharmacies/general practitioners/nurses) was compared with admission and discharge prescriptions to detect unintentional discrepancies in medication indicating involuntary medication changes. Medication errors were defined as unintentional medication discrepancies corrected by physicians. Risk factors for medication errors and serious errors (i.e. errors that may cause harm) were assessed using logistic regression. Results A total of 322 medication errors were identified and were mainly omissions. Prevalence of medication errors in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes was 21.5% and 22.2% respectively at admission, and 9.0% and 12.2% at discharge. After adjusting for age and number of treatments, people with Type 1 diabetes had nearly a twofold higher odds of having medication errors (odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.94) and serious errors (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.02–4.76) at admission compared with those with Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Medication reconciliation identified medication errors in one third of individuals. Clinical pharmacists should focus on poly-medicated individuals, but also on other high-risk people, for example, those with Type 1 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Permanent neonatal diabetes caused by abnormalities in chromosome 6q24
    Background Methylation defects at chromosome 6q24 usually induce transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. There are few reports of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by abnormalities of 6q24. We report the first case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus to be associated with confirmed methylation defects at chromosome 6q24. Case report A baby girl, small for her gestational age, was found to have high blood glucose 1 day after birth, with no systematic congenital anomalies. She showed no remission of diabetes and has hitherto been reliant on insulin (now aged of 5.5 years), which supports a diagnosis of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. The single nucleotide polymorphism array and highly polymorphic short tandem repeat analysis identified paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 6, and a genome-wide analysis ruled out mutations in coding and non-coding regions. Conclusion This report expands the varieties of neonatal diabetes known to be induced by methylation defects at chromosome 6q24, and suggests that the diagnostic evaluation of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus should be expanded to include testing for 6q24. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Association between gestational diabetes mellitus exposure and childhood adiposity is not substantially explained by offspring genetic risk of obesity
    Aim To examine the extent to which offspring obesity-associated genetic risk explains the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and childhood adiposity. Methods We studied 282 children aged 7–12 years who were enrolled in the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes in Children Study. A genetic risk score for BMI was calculated as the count of 91 established BMI-raising risk alleles. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between the offspring genetic risk score and exposure to gestational diabetes and childhood adiposity (BMI and waist circumference), adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. The contribution of offspring genetic risk to associations between maternal gestational diabetes and childhood outcomes was estimated by comparing the regression coefficients for the gestational diabetes variable in models with and without the genetic risk score. Results The offspring BMI genetic risk score was associated with childhood BMI (P=0.006) and waist circumference (P=0.02), and marginally with gestational diabetes (P=0.05). Offspring BMI genetic risk did not contribute significantly to associations between gestational diabetes and childhood BMI [7.7% (95% CI –3.3, 18.8)] or waist circumference [5.8% (95% CI –3.1, 14.8); P=0.2 for both]. Conclusions Offspring obesity genetic risk does not explain a significant proportion of the association between gestational diabetes exposure and childhood adiposity. The association between gestational diabetes and childhood adiposity is probably explained through alternative pathways, including direct intrauterine effects or a shared postnatal environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Association between HbA1c and peripheral neuropathy in a 10-year follow-up study of people with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes
    Aims To explore the association between HbA1c and sural nerve function in a group of people with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a 10-year follow-up study in 87 out of an original 119 participants. At study commencement (2004), 64 men and 55 women (mean age 61.1 years) with normal glucose tolerance (n=39), impaired glucose tolerance (n=29), or Type 2 diabetes (n=51) were enrolled. At the 2014 follow-up (men, n=46, women, n=41; mean age 71.1 years), 36, nine and 42 participants in the normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes categories, respectively, were re-tested. Biometric data and blood samples were collected, with an electrophysiological examination performed on both occasions. Results At follow-up, we measured the amplitude of the sural nerve in 74 of the 87 participants. The mean amplitude had decreased from 10.9 μV (2004) to 7.0 μV (2014; P<0.001). A 1% increase in HbA1c was associated with a ~1% average decrease in the amplitude of the sural nerve, irrespective of group classification. Crude and adjusted estimates ranged from –0.84 (95% CI –1.32, –0.37) to –1.25 (95% CI –2.31, –0.18). Although the mean conduction velocity of those measured at both occasions (n=73) decreased from 47.6 m/s to 45.8 m/s (P=0.009), any association with HbA1c level was weak. Results were robust with regard to potential confounders and missing data. Conclusions Our data suggest an association between sural nerve amplitude and HbA1c at all levels of HbA1c. Decreased amplitude was more pronounced than was diminished conduction velocity, supporting the notion that axonal degeneration is an earlier and more prominent effect of hyperglycaemia than demyelination.
  • Table of Contents 1
  • Fournier's gangrene in a man on empagliflozin for treatment of Type 2 diabetes
    Background Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) inhibitors has been associated with an increased risk of genital infections secondary to increased glycosuria. Case Report We report a case of a 41-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with empagliflozin and metformin who presented with scrotal swelling. He described multiple preceding episodes of genital thrush for which he self-administered over-the-counter anti-fungal treatment. On examination, he was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. Perineal examination revealed grossly swollen and indurated scrotum with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Investigations showed elevated inflammatory markers and HbA1c of 99 mmol/mol (11.2%). Computed tomography revealed features consistent with Fournier's gangrene. He underwent emergency exploration and debridement under anaesthetic with a later return to theatre for further exploration, washout and application of a vacuum dressing. He then received a split skin graft to his perineum. He required a 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics and was discharged home on oral antibiotics. Empagliflozin was ceased on admission and he was commenced on a basal bolus insulin regimen for glycaemic optimisation. Conclusion There is a wide clinical spectrum of genital infections associated with SGLT2 inhibitors with most being generally mild and easily treated. However, risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, immunosuppressed states, smoking, alcohol abuse and end-stage renal or liver failure may increase the risk of potentially more severe infections such as Fournier's gangrene. Timely cessation of SGLT2 inhibitors in individuals with multiple risk factors may help prevent progression to more severe genital infections.
  • The language of diabetes: the good, the bad and the ugly
  • Aims and Scope
  • Table of Contents 2
  • Editorial Board
  • Insulin secretory defect in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and successful long-term treatment with a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist
    Background Familial partial lipodystrophies are rare monogenic disorders that are often associated with diabetes. In such cases, it can be difficult to achieve glycaemic control. Case report We report a 34-year old woman with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Dunnigan) and diabetes; her hyperglycaemia persisted despite metformin treatment. A combined intravenous glucose tolerance–euglycaemic clamp test showed severe insulin resistance, as expected, but also showed strongly diminished first-phase insulin secretion. After the latter finding, we added the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide to the patient's treatment regimen, which rapidly normalized plasma glucose levels. HbA1c values <42 mmol/mol (6.0%) have now been maintained for over 4 years. Conclusion This case suggests that a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist may be a useful component of glucose-lowering therapy in individuals with familial partial lipodystrophy and diabetes mellitus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Incident ischaemic stroke and Type 2 diabetes: trends in incidence and case fatality in Scotland 2004–2013
    Aim To describe trends in first ischaemic stroke incidence and case fatality in adults with and without a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes prior to their ischaemic stroke event in Scotland between 2004 and 2013. Methods Using population-wide hospital admission, death and diabetes datasets, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to calculate year-specific incidence and case-fatality rates for people with Type 2 diabetes and for people without diabetes. Results During 41.0 million person-years of follow-up there were 69 757 ischaemic stroke events. Type 2 diabetes prevalence among patients who experienced ischaemic stroke increased from 13.5% to 20.3% between 2004 and 2013. Stroke incidence rates declined by 2.7% (95% CI 2.4, 3.0) annually for people with and without diabetes [diabetes/year interaction: rate ratio 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.01)]. Type 2 diabetes was associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke in men [rate ratio 1.23 (95% CI 1.17, 1.30)] and women [rate ratio 1.41 (95% CI 1.35, 1.48)]. Case-fatality rates were 14.2% and 12.7% in people with Type 2 diabetes and without diabetes, respectively. Case fatality declined by 3.5% (95% CI 2.7, 4.5) annually [diabetes/year interaction: odds ratio 1.01 (95% CI 0.98, 1.02)]. Conclusions Ischaemic stroke incidence declined no faster in people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes than in people without diabetes. Increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes among stroke patients may mean that declines in case fatality over time will be less marked in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Diabetic striatopathy manifesting as severe consciousness disturbance with no involuntary movements
    Background Diabetic striatopathy, one of the complications of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by involuntary movements, including hemichorea and hemiballismus, and the presence of hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the striatum. Case report We present a case of diabetic striatopathy manifesting as severe consciousness disturbance without chorea or ballismus. A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in a state of unconsciousness. He was diagnosed with diabetic striatopathy as a result of extremely elevated blood glucose levels and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings in the left striatum, although involuntary movements were absent. He was treated with insulin, and his glucose levels were well maintained. His neuropsychiatric symptoms recovered, rather slowly but completely, after ~20 days. Conclusion This case indicates the diversity of striatal dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia. For good prognosis of diabetic striatopathy, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatments are important. Physicians should be aware that this disease can cause various neurological and psychiatric symptoms other than chorea or ballismus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Optimal prandial timing of bolus insulin in diabetes management: a review
    The inability to achieve optimal diabetes glucose control in people with diabetes is multifactorial, but one contributor may be inadequate control of postprandial glucose. In patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin, both the dose and timing of meal-related rapid-acting insulin are key factors in this. There are conflicting opinions and evidence on the optimal time to administer mealtime insulin. We performed a comprehensive literature search to review the published data, focusing on the use of rapid-acting insulin analogues in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of rapid-acting insulin analogues, together with postprandial glucose excursion data, suggest that administering these 15–20 min before food would provide optimal postprandial glucose control. Data from clinical studies involving people with Type 1 diabetes receiving structured meals and rapid-acting insulin analogues support this, showing a reduction in post-meal glucose levels of ~30% and less hypoglycaemia when meal insulin was taken 15–20 min before a meal compared with immediately before the meal. Importantly, there was also a greater risk of postprandial hypoglycaemia when patients took rapid-acting analogues after eating compared with before eating. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Attenuated heart rate recovery predicts risk of incident diabetes: insights from a meta-analysis
    Aims To assess the association between attenuated heart rate recovery, a non-invasive measure of autonomic dysfunction, and risk of diabetes in the general population. Methods Databases were searched for cohort studies up to May 2017 that reported the association of heart rate recovery with the risk of diabetes. The overall hazard ratios for slowest vs fastest heart rate recovery (the referent) and for every 10-beats-per-min decrement in heart rate recovery were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis model. Results Four cohort studies with 430 incident cases of diabetes among a total of 9113 participants during a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years were included. Results showed that the slowest heart rate recovery was associated with a higher risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.38) vs the fastest heart rate recovery, and the hazard ratio of risk of diabetes for every 10-beats-per-min decrement in heart rate recovery was 1.29 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.48). No significant interaction effect was observed regarding the efficacy of 1-min and 2-min heart rate recovery in predicting risk of diabetes (both Pfor interaction >0.60); however, a linear dose–response relationship existed for overall studies and for studies using 1-min heart rate recovery as the exposure (both P >0.60 for non-linearity). Conclusions Attenuated heart rate recovery is associated with an increased risk of diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and measurement of heart rate recovery is worth recommending as part of diabetes risk assessment in clinical routines.
  • Rituximab for the treatment of type B insulin resistance syndrome: a case report and review of the literature
    Background Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory transient hyperglycaemia and severe insulin resistance associated with circulating anti-insulin receptor antibodies. A standardized treatment regimen for type B insulin resistance syndrome has yet to be established. Case report We report the case of a 64-year-old man undergoing haemodialysis for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and diabetic nephropathy, who developed rapid onset of hyperglycaemia (glycated albumin 52.1%). Type B insulin resistance syndrome was diagnosed, on the basis of positivity for anti-insulin receptor antibodies and the man's autoimmune history of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Although severe hyperglycaemia persisted in spite of corticosteroids and high-dose insulin therapy, rituximab treatment resulted in remarkable improvement of the man's severe insulin resistance and disappearance of anti-insulin receptor antibodies without any adverse effects. Conclusions According to a literature review of 11 cases in addition to the present case, rituximab appears to be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of corticosteroid-resistant type B insulin resistance syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • RD Lawrence Lecture 2017 Incretins: the intelligent hormones in diabetes
    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due largely to their insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering properties. Indeed, GLP-1-based therapies are now key treatment options for many people with diabetes worldwide. In contrast, GIP-based agents have yet to reach the clinic based primarily on the impaired insulinotropic action of GIP observed in people with diabetes. Nevertheless, GIP is a key physiological regulator of insulin secretion and stable forms of GIP show much promise in rodent models to alleviate diabetes–obesity. Recent studies suggest that GIP may have an important role to play in a combination therapeutic approach or bioengineered with other gut peptides. Moreover, recent experimental studies indicate that incretins also exert pleiotropic effects in regions of the brain associated with learning and memory, thereby supporting preclinical data demonstrating that incretin-based drugs improve cognitive function. This review article, based on the RD Lawrence Lecture presented at Diabetes UK Annual Professional Conference (2017), provides a brief overview of incretins with a major focus on GIP, the development of designer GIP analogues, and how these molecules can improve cognition. Thus, incretins can be considered as ‘the intelligent hormones’ and may hold the key to successfully treating the alarming rise in neurodegenerative disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Risk of pre-eclampsia in women taking metformin: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Aims To perform meta-analyses of studies evaluating the risk of pre-eclampsia in high-risk insulin-resistant women taking metformin prior to, or during, pregnancy. Methods A search was conducted of the Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Both randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohort studies of metformin treatment vs placebo/control or insulin either prior to or during pregnancy were selected. The main outcome measure was the incidence of pre-eclampsia in each treatment group. Results Overall, in five randomized controlled trials comparing metformin treatment (n=611) with placebo/control (n=609), no difference in the risk of pre-eclampsia was found (combined/pooled risk ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.33–2.26; P=0.76; I2=66%). Meta-analysis of four cohort studies again showed no significant effect (risk ratio 1.21, 95% CI 0.56–2.61; P=0.62; I2=30%). A meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials comparing metformin (n=838) with insulin (n=836), however, showed a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia with metformin (risk ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.95; P = 0.02; I2=0%). No heterogeneity was present in the metformin vs insulin analysis of randomized controlled trials, whereas high levels of heterogeneity were present in studies comparing metformin with placebo/control. Pre-eclampsia was a secondary outcome in most of the studies. The mean weight gain from time of enrolment to delivery was lower in the metformin group (P=0.05, metformin vs placebo; P=0.004, metformin vs insulin). Conclusions In studies randomizing pregnant women to glucose-lowering therapy, metformin was associated with lower gestational weight gain and a lower risk of pre-eclampsia compared with insulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Could FreeStyle Libre™ sensor glucose data support decisions for safe driving?
    Aim Many countries require individuals with diabetes to adhere to standards regarding blood glucose testing in order to be granted or retain a driving licence. Currently, interstitial glucose results may not be used. The aim of this study was to determine whether interstitial glucose measurements using flash glucose-sensing technology can provide additional information to augment safe driving. Methods Sensor data from two European studies (NCT02232698 and NCT02082184) of the FreeStyle Libre Glucose Monitoring System™ in insulin-treated Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, 241 and 224 participants respectively, were used to determine the frequency of a low interstitial sensor glucose result (< 3.9 mmol/l) up to 4 h subsequent to a daytime (07:00–21:00 h) capillary blood glucose result ≥ 5 mmol/l. Results Within 4 h of a capillary blood glucose result ≥ 5 mmol/l a sensor glucose result of < 3.9 mmol/l occurred on 22.0% of occasions (2573 of 11 706 blood glucose readings) for those with Type 1 diabetes, and 8.4% of occasions (699/8352) for those with Type 2 diabetes; 13.8% (1610/11 628) and 4.4% (365/8203) within 2 h, and 10.0% (1160/11 601) and 3.1% (254/8152) within 1.5 h. Analysis of sensor glucose results 5–7 mmol/l demonstrated the glucose trend arrow descending on 14.7% (1163/7894, Type 1 diabetes) and 9.4% (305/3233, Type 2 diabetes) of occasions. Conclusions Sensor-based glucose information with directional arrows has the potential to support assessment of safe glucose levels associated with driving and offers distinct advantages over blood glucose testing for individuals with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes to concord with driving safety standards.
  • Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data
    Aim To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two treatment regimens. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Results Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA1c reductions (real-world data –0.28%; RCT data, –1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA1c concentration, the change in HbA1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions in both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. Conclusion These results highlight specific discrepancies in the HbA1c reduction and weight change in insulin regimen between real world versus RCT populations; with greater reduction in HbA1c and greater increase in weight observed in the RCT population than in the real-world population. Also, the basal-bolus regimens in both real-world and RCT populations showed greater reduction in HbA1c compared to the premix regimen (though more marked in RCTs), while the premix regimen showed greater increase in weight in real-world, as against basal-bolus in the RCT population.
  • High risk of conversion to diabetes in first-degree relatives of individuals with young-onset type 2 diabetes: a 12-year follow-up analysis
    Aim Family history of diabetes is an established risk factor for Type 2 diabetes, but the impact of a family history of young-onset diabetes (onset < 40 years) on future risk of diabetes among first-degree relatives is unclear. In this prospective study, we examined the influence of family history of late- versus young-onset diabetes on the development of diabetes in a young to middle-aged Chinese population. Methods Some 365 siblings identified through probands with Type 2 diabetes and 452 participants from a community-based health awareness project (aged 18–55 years) who underwent metabolic assessment during the period 1998–2002 were followed to 2012–2013 to determine their glycaemic status. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the association of family history of diabetes presented at different age categories with development of diabetes. Results In this cohort, 53.4% (n = 167) of participants with a family history of young-onset diabetes, 30.1% (n = 68) of those with a family history of late-onset diabetes and 14.4% (n = 40) of those without a family history developed diabetes. Using logistic regression, family history of diabetes presented at ages ≥ 50, 40–49, 30–39 and < 30 years, increased conversion to diabetes with respective odds ratios of 2.4, 5.8, 9.4 and 7.0 (P < 0.001 for all), after adjustment for socio-economic status, smoking, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Among participants without diabetes at baseline, risk association of family history of late-onset diabetes with incident diabetes was not sustained, whereas that of family history of young-onset diabetes remained robust on further adjustment for baseline glycaemic measurements. Conclusions First-degree relatives of people with Type 2 diabetes, especially relatives of those with young-onset diabetes, are at high risk for diabetes.
  • Diabetes-related major lower limb amputation incidence is strongly related to diabetic foot service provision and improves with enhancement of services: peer review of the South-West of England
    Aims To investigate the relationship between high diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence and foot care services in the South-West region of England. Methods The introduction of 10 key elements of foot care service provision in one area of the South-West resulted in stabilization of foot ulcer incidence and sustained reduction in amputation incidence from 2007. Services introduced included administrative support, standardized general practice foot screening, improved community podiatry staffing, hospital multidisciplinary foot clinics, effective care pathways, availability of an orthotist and audit. Peer reviews of the region's diabetes foot care services were undertaken to assess delivery of these service provisions and compare this with major amputation incidence in other regions with data provided by Yorkshire and Humber Public Health Observatory Hospital Episode Statistics. Recommendations were made to improve service provision. In 2015 changes in service provision and amputation incidence were reviewed. Results Initial reviews in 2013 showed that the 3-year diabetes-related major amputation incidence correlated inversely with adequate delivery of diabetes foot care services (P=0.0024, adjusted R2 =0.51). Repeat reviews in 2015 found that two or more foot care service improvements were reported by six diabetes foot care providers, with improvement in outcomes. The negative relationship between major amputation incidence and service provision remained strong both in the period 2012–2015 and in the year 2015 only (P ≤0.0012, adjusted R2 =0.56, and P= 0.0005, R2=0.62, respectively). Conclusions Major diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence is significantly inversely correlated with foot care services provision. Introduction of more effective service provision resulted in significant reductions in major amputation incidence within 2 years. Failure to improve unsatisfactory service provision resulted in continued high amputation incidence.
  • Focus group study to identify the central facets of fear of hypoglycaemia in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Aims To determine key worries about hypoglycaemia among insulin-using adults with Type 2 diabetes using a focus group approach. Methods Thirteen focus groups were conducted in three diabetes outpatient care units and one peer support group was set up, in Germany. A total of 64 insulin-dependent adults with Type 2 diabetes (36.5% women, mean age 65.2 ± 11.0 years) discussed their worries about hypoglycaemia. The qualitative results were assigned into thematic categories using a bottom-up coding procedure. Participants completed the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey and demographic measures were recorded. The results of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey were contrasted with the focus group findings to evaluate how accurately the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captures features of fear of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Results Eight themes were identified: ‘unconsciousness/death’; ‘aloneness/ helplessness’, ‘fear of hurting somebody’; ‘shame’; ‘loss of physical control’; ‘long-term complications’; ‘diabetes self-management issues’; and ‘impaired awareness’. A total of 30 participants (46.9%) scored ≥3 on at least one item of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey worry subscale, indicating elevated worries. The Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captured all identified themes. Self-efficacy with regard to diabetes self-management seemed to play an important role in fear of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Given that even subclinical worries can have negative effects on quality of life and diabetes self-management, emphasis should be placed on diabetes education; in particular, to help patients to develop self-efficacy concerning diabetes self-management. The Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captures hypoglycaemia worries in Type 2 diabetes. Additional assessment of self-efficacy might be beneficial to identify people at risk of developing hypoglycaemia worries.
  • Characterizing adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and intellectual disability: outcomes of a case-finding study
    Aims To report the results of a case-finding study conducted during a feasibility trial of a supported self-management intervention for adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability and Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to characterize the study sample in terms of diabetes control, health, and access to diabetes management services and support. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional case-finding study in the UK (March 2013 to June 2015), which recruited participants mainly through primary care settings. Data were obtained from medical records and during home visits. Results Of the 325 referrals, 147 eligible individuals participated. The participants’ mean (sd) HbA1c concentration was 55 (15) mmol/mol [7.1 (1.4)%] and the mean (sd) BMI was 32.9 (7.9) kg/m2, with 20% of participants having a BMI >40 kg/m2. Self-reported frequency of physical activity was low and 79% of participants reported comorbidity, for example, cardiovascular disease, in addition to Type 2 diabetes. The majority of participants (88%) had a formal or informal supporter involved in their diabetes care, but level and consistency of support varied greatly. Post hoc exploratory analyses showed a significant association between BMI and self-reported mood, satisfaction with diet and weight. Conclusions We found high obesity and low physical activity levels in people with intellectual disability and Type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control was no worse than in the general Type 2 diabetes population. Increased risk of morbidity in this population is less likely to be attributable to poor glycaemic control and is probably related, at least in part, to greater prevalence of obesity and inactivity. More research, focused on weight management and increasing activity in this population, is warranted.
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of interventions for people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and disordered eating
    Aim To examine the types of interventions currently available for people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and their effectiveness. Background The prevalence of disordered eating in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus is twice that in their counterparts without diabetes, and is associated with worse biomedical outcomes and greater mortality. Methods Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and OpenGrey databases were searched up to August 2016 to identify studies on interventions in people with Type 1 diabetes-associated disordered eating. For the systematic review, intervention components were identified and their effectiveness was examined. For the meta-analysis, the pooled effect sizes of glycaemic control (HbA1c) between pre- and post-treatment in treatment and comparison groups were calculated using a random effects model. Results Of 91 abstracts reviewed, six studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three had appropriate data for the meta-analysis (n = 118). The pooled effect size was –0.21 95% CI (–0.58 to 0.16; where negative values represent an improvement in HbA1c levels), indicating no statistically significant improvement in the treatment group compared with comparison group. Inpatient therapy appeared to be the most effective treatment, and this had multiple components including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and family therapy. Conclusion Limited or no improvement in glycaemic control and disordered eating symptoms was observed in people with Type 1 diabetes-associated disordered eating who were receiving currently available interventions. The present review suggests that developing an intensive intervention with a joint focus on both disordered eating and diabetes management is needed for this complex patient group.

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